SIKE Java Documentation

Build Status GitHub issues Twitter License: AGPL v3

SIKE Java is a software library that implements experimental supersingular isogeny cryptographic schemes that aim to provide protection against attackers running a large-scale quantum computer. The library is a result of a security research cooperation between Wultra and Raiffeisen Bank International Competence Centre for Cryptology and Biometrics.

We advise the readers who are new to SIDH or SIKE to check the official resources, which provide many educational materials.

Features

The port of SIKE to Java provides the following functionality:

  • Key generation
  • SIDH key agreement
  • SIKE key encryption/decryption
  • SIKE key encapsulation/decapsulation

Following SIKE variants are supported:

  • SIKEp434
  • SIKEp503
  • SIKEp610
  • SIKEp751

The project provides implementation ports for both reference and optimized implementations, and it is possible to switch the implementation type. The port currently does not support compressed keys. The field arithmetics is based on Java BigInteger in the reference implementation. The optimized implementation uses an unsigned long array representation of field elements, and the field arithmetics does not use any native code.

The private and public keys can be exported into:

  • octet representation as defined in SIKE specification
  • byte array representation for a more optimal encoding

The private and public keys can be imported from either of these serialization formats.

The port includes KAT test vectors for all supported SIKE variants.

Note that this port’s aim was not to create a 100% identical port with the C code because the original syntax is not object-oriented. We also discovered minor issues during the port and reported them to the SIKE developers. There are small differences between the C and Java implementations. However, given the passing KAT test vectors, the implementations should be 100% compatible.

Usage

SIKE Java provides an easy to use interface for generating keys and computing shared secrets.

Initialization

As the first step, initialize the Bouncy Castle provider:

Security.addProvider(new BouncyCastleProvider());

The Bouncy Castle initialization should be done at the application start before the use of the SIKE Java functionality.

Before generating keys, choose one of the available variants:

SIKE Variant Name NIST Security Level Private Key Size Public Key Size Shared Secret Size
SIKEp434 1 374 330 16
SIKEp503 2 434 378 24
SIKEp610 3 524 462 24
SIKEp751 5 644 564 32

Two implementations are available:

  • REFERENCE - slow implementation with a focus on readability of code
  • OPTIMIZED - fast implementation with a focus on performance and security

The selected SIKE parameters need to be created using:

SikeParam sikeParam = new SikeParamP434(ImplementationType.OPTIMIZED);

Generating Keys

Generate key pairs using the KeyGenerator class:

KeyGenerator keyGenerator = new KeyGenerator(sikeParam);

Before generating a key pair, decide whether the party is ALICE or BOB.

For SIKE, ALICE is the server, and BOB is the client that initiates the communication.

To generate a key pair for ALICE, use:

KeyPair keyPairA = keyGenerator.generateKeyPair(Party.ALICE);

To generate a key pair for BOB, use:

KeyPair keyPairB = keyGenerator.generateKeyPair(Party.BOB);

Obtain the keys from the key pair using:

PrivateKey priv = keyPair.getPrivate();
PrivateKey pub = keyPair.getPrivate();

To export the keys, cast them to SidhPrivateKey or SidhPublicKey, and call either of these methods:

  • getEncoded() - returns the byte array representation of the key
  • toOctetString() - converts the key to an octet string as defined in SIKE specification

Obtain the numeric representation of keys using:

  • priv.getKey() - returns the FpElement representing the private key
  • pub.getPx() - returns the Fp2Element representing the public key element phi(Px)
  • pub.getQx() - returns the Fp2Element representing the public key element phi(Qx)
  • pub.getRx() - returns the Fp2Element representing the public key element phi(Rx)

Obtain the BigInteger representations of the keys using:

  • priv.getM() - returns the BigInteger representing the private key
  • pub.getPx().getX0().getX() - returns the BigInteger representing the real part of public key x coordinate phi(Px)
  • pub.getPx().getX1().getX() - returns the BigInteger representing the imaginary part of public key x coordinate phi(Px)

Obtaining BigInteger representations of x coordinates of phi(Qx) and phi(Rx) is analogous to phi(Px).

Import private keys from their byte array representation:

SikeParam sikeParam = new SikeParamP434(ImplementationType.OPTIMIZED);
byte[] secret = secretBytes;
PrivateKey priv = new SidhPrivateKey(sikeParam, Party.ALICE, secret);

It is also possible to import private keys from their octet string representation:

SikeParam sikeParam = new SikeParamP434(ImplementationType.OPTIMIZED);
String secret = secretOctets;
PrivateKey priv = new SidhPrivateKey(sikeParam, Party.ALICE, secret);

Finally, it is also possible to import private keys from their BigInteger representation:

SikeParam sikeParam = new SikeParamP434(ImplementationType.OPTIMIZED);
BigInteger secret = new BigInteger(secretNumber);
PrivateKey priv = new SidhPrivateKey(sikeParam, Party.ALICE, secret);

Once having a private key, derive the public key using:

PublicKey pub = keyGenerator.derivePublicKey(Party.ALICE);

Public keys can also be imported from various serialization formats using the SidhPublicKey class constructors.

SIDH Key Agreement

After initializing the keys for both parties, it is easy to compute the shared secret using SIDH. The process is the same for both parties. Similarly to DH or ECDH, SIDH uses the opposite public and private keys:

Sidh sidh = new Sidh(sikeParam);
Fp2Element secretA = sidh.generateSharedSecret(Party.ALICE, keyPairA.getPrivate(), keyPairB.getPublic());
Fp2Element secretB = sidh.generateSharedSecret(Party.BOB, keyPairB.getPrivate(), keyPairA.getPublic());

Obtain the byte array representing secret j-invariants of both sides using:

byte[] encoded = secret.getEncoded();

Both secrets secretA and secretB are equal in case the key agreement succeeded. The shared secret sizes match the Fp2Element sizes in the chosen SIKE variant, which is 1/3 of the public key size. Using a hashing function on the shared secret values is advised to obtain shorter shared secret sizes and eliminate any risks related to using BigInteger representation of the j-invariant.

Note that SIDH provides lower security than SIKE. It is an ind-CPA scheme and should only be used with ephemeral keys.

SIKE Key Encapsulation

The SIKE encapsulation and decapsulation process is different for either of the parties and starts on BOB’s side:

SikeParam sikeParam = new SikeParamP434(ImplementationType.OPTIMIZED);
KeyGenerator keyGenerator = new KeyGenerator(sikeParam);
KeyPair keyPairB = keyGenerator.generateKeyPair(Party.BOB);

Bob transports his public key keyPairB to ALICE, who uses the public key for the encapsulation phase of the KEM:

EncapsulationResult encapsulationResult = sike.encapsulate(keyPairB.getPublic());
EncryptedMessage encryptedMessage = encapsulationResult.getEncryptedMessage();
byte[] secretA = encapsulationResult.getSecret();

The encrypted message encryptedMessage is transported to BOB who uses the public key and cipher text included in the message for the decapsulation phase of KEM:

byte[] secretB = sike.decapsulate(keyPairB.getPrivate(), keyPairB.getPublic(), encryptedMessage);

Both secrets secretA and secretB are equal in case the key encapsulation and decapsulation succeeded. The shared secret sizes are listed in the table presented in the Initialization chapter.

Note that SIKE provides higher security than SIDH. It is an ind-CCA2 scheme and can be used with long term keys.

License

SIKE Java is licensed using GNU AGPLv3 license. Please consult us at [email protected] for the software use.

Last updated on Mar 28, 2021 (20:56) Edit on Github Send Feedback
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